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Tuesday, May 9

  1. page Civil War Medicine edited Civil War MedicineBy Nikoletta Toffoloni {civil-war-field-hospital.jpg} The wounded soldiers ar…

    Civil War MedicineBy Nikoletta Toffoloni
    {civil-war-field-hospital.jpg} The wounded soldiers are waiting to be helped in these awful conditions. The number of wounded soldiers greatly exceeds the number available to help treat them.
    Introduction
    The Civil War was the most brutal confrontation that the United States of America and its military ever faced. This war that pitted American versus American lead to the greatest number of casualties the United States would ever experience in a war. At that time, new weapons were coming out but the medical care lagged behind, making it a challenge to save any soldier that was injured in battle.
    {Screen_shot_2011-05-17_at_7.35.18_PM.png} Fatalities by Major U.S. Wars
    {Screen_shot_2011-05-17_at_7.34.49_PM.png} Civil War Deaths
    Civil War Medicine
    At the start of the Civil War, medicine was still very primitive in the United States. Bacteria, germs, infections, and their transmissions were not clearly understood, resulting in the rise in the rate of disease, the greatest killer during the war. Antiseptics and antibiotics had not been developed. Opium and morphine, used as pain killers, were two of the most effective drugs used during the war. Mercury, not known at the time for its toxicity, was often combined with chalk creating a “blue mass” and used to treat bowel related problems. Quinine was also another major drug used to reduce the fever and symptoms of those infected with malaria. When quinine was not available, turpentine was used as a substitute. Even alcohol, most notably whiskey, was used to treat wounds or kill pain.
    {Screen_shot_2011-05-17_at_7.35.38_PM.png} War Statistics
    Doctors and Nurses
    Doctors or surgeons as they were called, and nurses received very limited medical education and were in very short supply. Many surgeons were unfamiliar with gunshot and battlefield wounds. As the war progressed, surgeons became more well-versed in treating battlefield injuries. Female nurses made a huge impact on medical care. Dorothea Dix and Clara Barton were probably the two most famous ones as they did much to promote medical care during the war. Nurses were often know as “The Angels of the Battlefield” and approximately two thousand women served as nurses between the North and the South. Both surgeons and nurses worked extremely long hours and often went without much sleep to tend to the tremendous number of casualties during the war. The main goals of the medical professionals were to extract bullets, remove fractured portions of bones, remove limbs when necessary, try to clean the wounds, apply dressings, and to provide compassionate care.
    Hospitalization
    {civil-war-amputation.jpg} A wounded soldier about to have his leg amputated. This shows the lack of hygiene during the Civil War (amputations were done in open air where contamination was just waiting to infect the soldiers).
    Dr. Jonathan Letterman, the Medical Director of the Army of the Potomac stated, “Houses and barns, but chiefly the woods were used as hospitals and the wounded, necessarily endured much suffering.” The majority of operations were conducted in the open air where surgeons had the best lighting conditions or in tents erected just outside the main battlefield. The plan for the wounded was to evacuate them as quickly as possible from the battlefield, gather them in field hospitals, give them treatment, and dress their wounds. From there, if and when possible, the wounded would be transported by rail or ship to established general hospitals in a nearby city.
    Wounds
    {HospitalCivilWar01.jpg} Wounded soldiers that have been treated are restlessly waiting around, miserable that they are now crippled, but also in shock from the trauma and pain.
    The majority of the wounds caused during the Civil War were from gunshots. The main bullet used was the Minie ball. It was made of soft lead which created a jagged wound, often splintering the bone when entering the body. The second most prominent cause of wounds was artillery fire. Exploding shell fragments from artillery fire also sent iron fragments into the air. These fragments often found their way into the bodies of nearby soldiers. Wounds caused by the thrusts of a bayonet in hand to hand combat happened less frequently, accounting for only about two percent of the injuries.
    Anesthesia
    When it was available, chloroform or ether was used as anesthetics to reduce the trauma to those being operated on. They were applied to a cloth and placed over the soldier’s mouth and nose making him unconscious. This form of anesthesia usually gave the operating surgeons enough time to perform the needed surgery.
    Surgery and Amputations
    {civil-war-amputation-kit-650.jpg} The amputation kit used in the Civil War, with an assortment of different knives for cutting the different layers of the body part being amputated.
    Unfortunately, due to lack of proper facilities and lack of clean water, surgery was not a sterile process. Often, the doctors did not wash their hands between patients and their instruments were not cleaned and sterilized between procedures, introducing infectious bacteria into the wounds. For soldiers with injuries in one of their extremities caused by bullets and shrapnel or metal fragments from artillery shells, the answer was often amputation because it made a complicated wound much simpler. Doctors became so proficient at amputations that they could perform them in ten minutes or less. During the war, Union surgeons performed almost 30,000 amputations.
    {2364098348_450b14a8d6_o.jpg} After the limbs were sawed off, the doctor would just throw the limb into a heap that could pile up to five feet high.
    Watch this video to learn more about the hospitalization of soldiers, the procedural steps to amputating a limb, and artificial limbs.
    Infections and Diseases
    The greatest risk of dying that soldiers faced was not from enemy fire but due to the risk of disease. During the war, twice as many soldiers died from diseases than from gunshot wounds. Since there were not antiseptics and antibiotics, minor injuries and wounds often became infected and turned to gangrene (the rotting of flesh), often having fatal results. Poor hygiene, unsanitary conditions, over crowding in the military camps, unclean water, poor quality food, and insufficient shelter increased the risk of infections and allowed the diseases that arose and spread during the war to run rampant. The diseases of dysentery, measles, small pox, pneumonia and malaria posed the greatest risk to the soldiers who fought in the war, accounting for the greatest loss of lives in the Civil War.
    {Screen_shot_2011-05-17_at_7.49.50_PM.png} Major Civil War Diseases
    {Screen_shot_2011-05-17_at_7.35.48_PM.png} Death Rates Caused by Disease
    Bibliography
    Websites:
    Civil War Diseases. 2011. Civil War Academy.com. 11 May 2011.
    <__http://www.civilwaracademy.com/civil-war-diseases.html__>.
    Civil War Medicine. 2011. Civil War Academy.com. 11 May 2011.
    <__http://www.civilwaracademy.com/civil-war-medicine.html__>.
    Civil War Medicine. 24 Nov. 2006. Shotgun's Home of the American Civil War. 11 May 2011.
    <__http://www.civilwarhome.com/civilwarmedicineintro.htm__>.
    Civil War Medicine. 2008. Sonofthesouth.net. 11 May 2011.
    <__http://www.sonofthesouth.net/leefoundation/civil-war-medicine.htm__>.
    Medicine in the Civil War. 2011. Gettysburg National Military Park Kidzpage. 11 May 2011.
    <__http://www.nps.gov/archive/gett/gettkidz/doctor.htm__>.
    Medicine: Civil War Battlefield Medicine. 2011. eHistory.com. 11 May 2011.
    <__http://ehistory.osu.edu/uscw/features/medicine/cwsurgeon/index.cfm__>.
    To Bind Up the Nation's Wounds: Medicine During the Civil War. 2011. National Museum of Health and Medicine. 11 May 2011.
    <__http://www.nmhm.washingtondc.museum/exhibits/nationswounds/index.html__>.
    Pictures (In order of appearance):
    <__http://www.sonofthesouth.net/leefoundation/civil-war-medicine.htm__>
    <__http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-Xau4TSXZdgQ/TZwomU7yRQI/AAAAAAAACrw/onzsYJw_s-M/s400/civil-war-amputation.jpg__>
    <__http://www.johnbachman.org/images/HospitalCivilWar01.jpg__>
    <__http://www.sonofthesouth.net/leefoundation/civil-war-medicine.htm__>
    <__http://www.learnnc.orglpmediauploads2008/12/2364098348_450b14a8d6_o.jpg__>
    Video:
    <http://youtu.be/3T5v_QbFZDU>
    Notes:
    {Civil War Medicine Notes.doc}

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Wednesday, February 18

  1. page Civil War Medicine edited ... {civil-war-field-hospital.jpg} The wounded soldiers are waiting to be helped in these awful co…
    ...
    {civil-war-field-hospital.jpg} The wounded soldiers are waiting to be helped in these awful conditions. The number of wounded soldiers greatly exceeds the number available to help treat them.
    Introduction
    ...
    making it an interestinga challenge to
    {Screen_shot_2011-05-17_at_7.35.18_PM.png} Fatalities by Major U.S. Wars
    {Screen_shot_2011-05-17_at_7.34.49_PM.png} Civil War Deaths
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Tuesday, May 14

  1. page Lives of Children During the Civil War edited ... Southern Children {Children_in_the_1800s.jpg} Southern children facing hard times during the …
    ...
    Southern Children
    {Children_in_the_1800s.jpg} Southern children facing hard times during the war.
    ...
    the war.
    Slave Children
    ...
    thirty percent.
    Helping from Home
    Many children from all over the country were eager to find ways to participate at home to help out their fighting troops. Whenever local regiments would watch off to war, children would gather around to show their support. Many boys idolized the soldiers and would form their own "boys' companies." All over the country newspapers and adults spoke of and spread word of the children's devout enthusiasm and willingness to help. Also many children's magazines highlighted the war and spread news to it, and ways to help to children all over. Many memoirs from young boys at the time mention how in their world the war they were fascinated in and their childhood world of play seemed to merge. Also, many memoirs from young girls at the time mention how fascinated and curious the girls were about the war, but how they weren't necessarily as involved as the boys due to their gender. Many children would "pick lint" or make bandages to send to soldiers, and many older children and young adults found jobs at ammunition factories and government offices in order to help the war effort. While younger children showed their support by, collecting food and supplies, raising money through fairs, and volunteering at hospitals treating local regiments. The fairs in the North were held by The United States Sanitary Commission were opportunities for youth and adults alike to volunteer and perform to help raise money for the war.
    Children on the Battlefield
    ...
    to instruct
    {Soldier-Boy.jpg} A young nine year old soldier.
    ...
    the camps.
    Carrie Berry
    {Carrie_Berry.jpg} A picture of Carrie Berry, taken during the Civil War.In August 1864 Carrie Berry, a ten year old girl living in Atlanta, began keeping a diary of what she saw of the war from her place at home. She wrote entries daily until January 4, 1865, and throughout the time of her writings she kept very detailed descriptions on the war around her and how herlife at home was affected. During the July before Berry started keeping her diary General Joseph E. Johnston, along with other confederate generals were trying to hold back Union troops, led by William Tecumseh Sherman, from seizing Atlanta and the rivers and railroads surrounding it. By September of 1864, Atlanta was officially in Union hands after months of fighting. Throughout her diary Carrie Berry tells of how close and real the fighting was to her. Often, during her August and even some September entries she mentions hiding in her basement with her family, or even staying at her aunt's house when the shelling got increasingly bad. No one in her family was harmed during the battles and firing going on right outside her door, but she did mention shells going off in her barn and in her dining room, but luckily no onewas home at the time. Besides showinghow closely southern families were affected by the constant warfare, she also shows how she maintained somewhat of a regular childhood throughout the time. She talks about school, and learning grammar, as well as helping her mom take care of her younger sister, who is sick. For a child growing up in the south, she was somewhat lucky because her father never had to fight in the war and was present throughout her righting, and she didn't loose any immediate family members in the war either. For Carrie though, the war and battle was all around her, at least for a few months. Within her book she mentions the constant sound of cannons and shells at night, and how it felt like the gunfire never stopped. She often describes how close it felt, and that she was scared everything she new would be gone in a second due to the fighting. Lastly, she considers some of the limitations having an invading federal army around. She says that the citizens of Atlanta were not able to get fruit and many other supplies from other places because the army was all around them. Through the detailed entries of a young girl, a first hand view into fighting and life during the Civil War is shown.
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    4:43 pm

Saturday, August 18

  1. page Nurses in the Civil War edited Nurses in the the Civil WarBy: {http://lcweb2.loc.gov/service/pnp/cwpb/01100/01195r.jpg} Nur…

    Nurses in thethe Civil WarBy:
    {http://lcweb2.loc.gov/service/pnp/cwpb/01100/01195r.jpg} Nurses and Officers in Virginia
    Introduction
    Although the men did all of the fighting, women contributed a lot to the Civil War as well. They were known as “the angels of the battlefield,” by helping the hurt soldiers and generals as nurses. Although many nurses enlisted, there were not a lot of them in comparison to the amount of soldiers that got hurt, as throughout the whole Civil War there were a total of about two thousand women who were volunteer nurses in the military hospitals. In addition, the nurses were some of the true hero’s because they helped many men and they were the ones to experience all of the “grim,” first hand. They dealt with disease, mutilated bodies, deaths, and had to amputate limbs along with much more. They were committed to their jobs almost every hour of the day and did their best to keep the men alive.
    Environment Around the Nurses
    ...
    unpleasant site. TheyMedical Health Reports they had to
    Average Day as a Nurse
    The great women who were nurses during the Civil War were some of the greatest hero’s known. Their days were packed and filled, as they were always busy doing something for the soldiers. They had such a hard job to complete, as it was not just giving medicine to the patients. The nurses would also have to feed meals to the soldiers, comfort the people who were dying, and assist the doctors during operations such as amputations. They would even have to write letters for the soldiers when they wanted to write back home if they weren’t able to. In addition, they had to transport and deliver supplies, oversee various facilities, and manage all of the medications. These are just some of the many tasks the nurses had to attend to, as there are even more that have not been mentioned here. Without all of the help and aid from the nurses, the men would have died much quicker and the army's would not have been as stable as they were.
    ...
    This is a video about Clara Barton (she was actually born on December 25, 1821, not 1812 like the video says).
    Medicine/Treatment
    ...
    lot. Any timetime a patient
    {nurse_kit.jpg} Nurse Kit during the Civil War
    Click {notes.civil.war.nurses.doc} for my notes!
    ...
    "Women Nurses Provided a Wide Range of Services." Women Nurses in the Civil War. Web. 17 May 2011. <http://www.dtsk8.org/6_8/8/Civil%20War%20Webpage-RS/duties.html>.
    "Women in the Civil War » Civil War Pictures." The American Civil War Pictures Database - Civil War Photos and Images. The American Civil War Photo Gallery, 2011. Web. 17 May 2011. <http://www.civilwar-pictures.com/articles/general/women-in-the-civil-war/>.
    ...
    2011. <http://www.civilwarhome.com/bartonbio.htm>.
    Lee,

    Lee,
    Roger A.,
    ...
    2011. <http://www.historyguy.com/civilwar/barton_clara.html>.
    he

    he
    Barton Center.
    ...
    2011. <http://www.clarabartonbirthplace.org/life.html>.
    "Union Nurses of the Civil War." Civil War Women Blog. Google, 19 Nov. 2006. Web. 17 May 2011. <• http://www.civilwarwomenblog.com/2006/11/union-nurses-of-civil-war.html>.
    Civil War Academy. "Civil War Medicine, Civil War Doctors, Civil War Nurses." Civil War, American Civil War, Reconstruction. Google, 2007-2011. Web. 17 May 2011. <http://www.civilwaracademy.com/civil-war-medicine.html>.
    ...
    File:Clara Barton Birthplace.jpg. 2009. Photograph. Wikimedia Commons. By Marc N. Belanger. 1 Aug. 2009. Web. 17 May 2011. <http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Clara_Barton_birthplace.jpg>.
    GENERAL- Nurses of the Civil War. 2010. Photograph. GENERATIONS. By Bart B. Christmas. Blogger, 31 July 2010. Web. 18 May 2011. <http://bartchristmas.blogspot.com/2010/07/general-nurses-of-civil-war.html>.

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Friday, July 20

  1. page John Brown's Raid edited John John Brown's Raid Introduction John Brown was an extreme abolitionist who wanted to free…
    JohnJohn Brown's Raid
    Introduction
    John Brown was an extreme abolitionist who wanted to free all slaves from their masters in the South. Brown was 55 years old, been married twice. He had twenty children with his first wife and thirteen children with his second wife. He intended to provide arms to slaves in order to retaliate. The North found this raid as a sign that the Civil War had begun. Yet the South found themselves fearful, reinforcing their hold against all slaves. John Brown will live on, whether as the first step towards the Civil War, or the murderer who was irrational in his thinking.
    Harpers Ferry
    {NWDNS-165-SB-26_Harpers_Ferry_Virginia.jpg}http://westlakeboatrentals.com/
    {NWDNS-165-SB-26_Harpers_Ferry_Virginia.jpg}
    Harpers Ferry
    ...
    masters with.
    The Preparation and Thinking Before the Attack
    ...
    with him.
    What Went on During the Raid
    Brown rented put the Kenedy Farm lying only a couple miles away from Harpers Ferry. It was October 16, 1859 that Brown left the farm with his troops towards Harpers Ferry. One of the problems that resolved with Brown's plan was that there was no retreat plan, no way of escaping if something goes wrong. As they approached, the bridge guard an {The_Kenedy_Farm.jpg} d an arsenal guard were taken as prisoners. They made no attempt of retaliating for they were too stunned to realize what was happening. At midnight, a new arsenal guard arrived only to be met with one of Brown's men and told to surrender, but he ran and was shot at. The first to fall was Shephard Hayward, a free slave that went to investigate the incoming train. He was shot and slowly died some hours later. Ironic that the raid to free slaves ended up first killing a free slave. A little later Brown sent a smaller band of men to the house of Lewis W. Washington (the great-grandnephew of George Washington). He demanded that a certain sword aparently given from Frederick the Great (King of Persia) in his possesion be given to one of the free slaves as a ceremonial gesture. While all this was going on Dr. Starry spent his night riding out and gathering guns and various weapons to fight back against Brown and his men. Guards from neighboring cities cam by boat and train to the arsenal. By doing this all sides and exits were sealed off and not allowing Brown and escape route to the farm. A nearby train came rushing into the station and Brown let it run past, allowing the public to learn of his attack on the arsenal. Conducter Phelps, after leaving with his train, informed others in B&O transportation. {HWFireHouseBrown.jpg} The militia attacking Brown.This interested the president, John W. Garrett, sending a message to Frederick, Maryland who sent their militia to the arsenal. Brown's group now only consisted of eighteen men dwindling down each moment. Troops and civilions were outraged when news of Fontaine Beckham, the mayor, of being shot unarmed. As the evening progressed, more and more troops filed in as Brown's troops were at a mere seven men. Soon enought Robert E. Lee came down to take matters into his hands. He sent a letter to Brown, demanding they surrender because Lee couldn't attack for fear of of killing the prisoners in Brown's possesion. After Brown refused to surrender Lieutenant Green charged Brown and produced multiple cuts to his face and had his men charge the others. Brown's quick attempt at his raid died as fast as it began.
    ...
    After the raid had died down most of the "freed" slaves ended up going back to be with their masters. On October 19, 1859, three days after the raid, Brown and the other survivors were sent to prison to decide their punishment. Brown's trial started on October 25, more than a week after the raid. He was charged on three accounts. First, for treason against Virginia, since Harpers Ferry is located in Virginia. Secondly murder charges were put upon him for killing many innocent, unarmed men. And lastly for plotting with slaves to commit treason. {Harper's_Ferry_Raid_Monument.jpg} A national monument for Harpers Ferry raid.His jury decided he was guilty on account of all charges. He was hung a month later with all other surviving men on December 2. After being publicly hung, Brown's sanity was unsure. His sanity was almost going to be tested but was taken back before being put to use. HIs raid was thought to be the preamble to war that was yet to come. Of all of Brown's men the only ones that survived were the men left and the Kenedy Farm and the ones who ran during the raid. All others were either killed during the raid or later hung with Brown.
    How it Effected the Abolitionist Movement
    ...
    actions honorable.
    Bibliography
    Writing:
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Monday, December 12

  1. page Religion in the Civil War edited ... {http://www.angelfire.com/pa5/civilwarchaplain/CivilWar1.jpg} Sunday Mass at New York Regiment…
    ...
    {http://www.angelfire.com/pa5/civilwarchaplain/CivilWar1.jpg} Sunday Mass at New York RegimentThey also wrote letters for the wounded or dying soldiers; either to inform the family about a death or simply to assist those who could not write. On August 3, 1861 an act was passed by Abraham Lincoln that dramatically improved chaplaincy. It allowed the chaplains to be from any religious denomination. This act was requested by the Board of Delegates of American Israelites to make provisions for Jewish chaplains. Of the Union chaplains, there was a large amount of Roman Catholic’s. Yet also, the Union held the first appointment of Jewish and Black chaplains. The amount of Union to Confederate chaplains was over three times as many because of the shortage of Confederate regiments. Chaplains helped encourage the soldiers and were a huge service to the Civil War.
    Notes:
     {religion{religion in civil
    Bibliography:
    "Chaplain John's History of the Civil War Chaplains." Angelfire: Welcome to Angelfire. Web Ring Inc. Web. 17 May 2011. http://www.angelfire.com/pa5/civilwarchaplain/.
    ...
    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fe/Abraham_Lincoln_seated,_Feb_9,_1864.jpg
    http://www.civilwaracademy.com/images/Civil-War-Chaplain.jpg
    Bible Answers
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Sunday, November 27

  1. page Civil War Medicine edited Civil Civil War MedicineBy Nikoletta Toffoloni {civil-war-field-hospital.jpg} The woun…

    Civil

    Civil
    War MedicineBy Nikoletta Toffoloni
    {civil-war-field-hospital.jpg} The wounded soldiers are waiting to be helped in these awful conditions. The number of wounded soldiers greatly exceeds the number available to help treat them.
    Introduction
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Wednesday, May 25

  1. page Espionage1861 edited ... During the Civil War, spies and spy activity was everywhere. However, it is not the James Bond…
    ...
    During the Civil War, spies and spy activity was everywhere. However, it is not the James Bond-esque spying that we know and love today. Spying during the time of the Civil war was more of a, "political chess game" than anything else. Each side was fully aware of the presence of spies, but lack of technology and a few other variables rendered them virtually defenseless against even the most basic of spying techniques. Both sides effectively used spy tactics to aid there cause and revolutionized the world of espionage. The international spying community today owes a great bit of gratitude to the spies of so many years ago.
    Confederate SpiesConfederate Spies
    ...
    to Rose
    O'Neal Greenhow.

    {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b2/Rose_O%27Neal_Greenhow%2C_secessionist.jpg/401px-Rose_O%27Neal_Greenhow%2C_secessionist.jpg} Rose Greenhow
    Rose Greenhow
    O'Neal Greenhow.
    Greenhow's stationing in D.C. allowed her to quite easily obtain and wire intelligence back to the south. The vast of majority of this information reportedly was obtained through an, "infatuated suitor," Henry Wilson of Massachusetts, the chairman of the senate Military Affairs Committee. Greenhow's intelligence was smuggled to the Confederacy through an intricate series of couriers. Two other confederate intelligenceagencies in the D.C. area were under the command of cavalry men turned spies: Captain Thomas N. Conrad and Private J. Franklin Stringfellow. These highly lucrative operations were connected to the Confederacy's first major Secret Service Bureau formed in 1862.
    The leader of this bureau was Major William Norris who in time would oversee the development of dozens of intelligence and counterintelligence agents who worked along the "secret line (and "underground" path between Richmond and the DC area)." Norris and his partner Captain Charles Cawood extended operations as far north as Canada, making it possibly the most successful ring of intelligence the war ever saw. A second agency was established under the command of Brigadier General Gabriel J. Rains, however it was poorly managed and, as a result, was not nearly as successful as Norris' agency.
    ...
    Although the Confederacy experienced great success with individual civilian spies, their larger scale intelligence agencies were largely unsuccessful.
    Union SpiesUnion Spies
    ...
    go hot toestablishto establish any form
    {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0b/Pinkerton_fcm.png} Allan Pinkerton
    Allan Pinkerton
    (view changes)
    8:17 am

Tuesday, May 24

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